A B C
D E F
G H I
J K L
M N O
P Q R
S T U
V W X
A nearly horizontal passage from the surface by which a mine is
entered and through which water is removed. It has just
sufficient slope to ensure drainage.
A shaft used expressly for ventilation.
Any passage through which air is carried into a mine.
A solid block of coal left unworked between two mines
as a protection against an influx of water, between workings and
a road allowance or between workings and a nearby river.
A mixture of air and carbon dioxide or air with an excess
content of nitrogen.
A canvas cloth used to deflect air currents; usually used
near the working face and is of a temporary nature.
Slatey or carbonaceous shale found in coal seams.
An enclosed platform on which men and mine cars are
transported in a vertical shaft. Similar to an elevator.
Cager or Cage Tender
The person who puts the cars on the cage at the top or bottom
of the shaft.
The wheeled vehicle used to transport coal from the workings
to the surface.
A compound of carbon and calcium which, with the addition of
water, produces acetylene gas, used in miners' lamps.
Cave or Cave-in
A collapsing of the roof of a mine.
Amount of explosive used in one blast or shot.
A man appointed and paid by the miners to check the weighing
of coal at the surface.
Chock or Cog
A square pillar for supporting the roof; constructed of
timbers laid up crossways in alternate layers, the centre being
filled with waste material.
A tapered piece of wood placed in the kerf to keep it open
until ready for blasting.
Vertical cleavage in coal seams.
A machine used to undercut or shear a coal seam; one who
operates such a machine.
A defined area over which consistent coal deposits exist and
reserve calculations can be obtained.
Very finely powdered coal.
A large area of consistent coal deposition for which reserve
calculations can be obtained; usually comprised of two or more
A continuous layer of coal extending over some distance.
A vertical extent of intermittent coal seams and intermingled
shale or clay. The Zone extends from the top of the uppermost
seam to the bottom of the lowermost one.
The whole mine plant, including the mine and all its
The upheaval of the floor, due to a tender or unstable floor,
or the sagging of the roof of the mine-due to the weight of the
A tunnel driven through or across the rock strata from one
seam to another: a small passageway driven at right angles to
the main entry to connect to a parallel entry or counter entry.
Work that is not directly productive, such as cleaning up
rock falls or re-timbering airways.
The angle that a structural surface, e.g., bedding plane or
fault plane, makes with the horizontal, measured perpendicular
to the strike of the structure.
The opening through which the fresh air is drawn, or forced,
into the mine; the intake.
A tunnel driven from the outcrop into the seam; a tunnel
driven in rock from one seam to another.
A worker who drives horses from a gathering point to the
mechanical haulage; anyone who drives horses underground.
A main haulage road, gangway or airway; an underground
passage used for haulage or ventilation.
The place where the coal is actually being worked, either in
a room or in long wall.
A fracture in the earth that breaks the continuity of the
coal seam and/or strata. Frequently results in displacement of
said strata or seam.
A section foreman responsible for blasting and supervising an
underground crew of up to 16 men. Also inspects the mine for
A mixture of air and methane gas.
Very unstable materials in the roof of the workings; easily
crumbled rock materials in the roof.
Place in the mine where trips of cars are made up for their
journey to the shaft bottom.
That part of the mine occupied by broken material that
previously overlay the coal seam.
A structure of wood or steel erected over a shaft to support
the pulley wheels by which the cages are raised or lowered; also
The gradual lifting of the floor of a seam where coal has
A miner's assistant, or one who works under a trained
A collier who cuts coal by hand pick.
A machine used to hoist coal underground or to haul the cages
in shafts; originally driven by steam but later by electricity
or compressed air.
In a direction toward the workings, or away from the shaft
bottom. Also Outbye, the opposite.
A rising entry tunnel or haulage road. In the Lethbridge
field, a sloping railway up which rakes of coal cars were hauled
by endless cable.
A small area of isolated coal deposition, for example, the
Pothole Coulee area.
The undercut made to assist the breaking of coal.
Leather or rubber protection worn over the knees when working
in thin seams.
Timber planks or slabs used for immediate support at the
face; used as crosspieces on long wall timbering. (See Strap.)
A wooden prop supporting one end of a cross-timber.
Miner who shovels coal into cars for transport out of mine.
A series of rock strata having some common feature;
a general term for the sedimentary rock within a coal field. See
A worker in a mine with a valid certificate of competency as
A candle or any form of light that is not a safety lamp.
Small coal that will pass through screens with openings that
vary from one-half to two inches (1.5 to 5.0 cm).
A support for a passage extending above another passage.
One who is in charge of the mine when men are in it.
A thin stratum of clay or stone in a seam of coal. Also
called a Band.
Small pieces of coal about 1/2-in to 3/4-in (0.5 to 0.7 cm)
A section of the seam left between rooms (stalls) while the
coal in the rooms is being extracted. Pillars can be 30 to 50
feet (9 to 15 m) in width. Size of pillars is determined by the
stability of the surrounding rock.
Pillar removal or Robbing
The removal of pillars after the rooms have been worked out;
usually begins at the furthest extent of mining and proceeds
hack to the entrance. This begins the natural phenomenon of mine
Term for a colliery; the coal mine in general.
Holder of a second-class mining certificate and in charge of
the underground workings of a particular mine; second to the
manager in authority and deals with the day-to-day problems in
the mine; an under-manager.
The complex of buildings comprising the head frame and tipple
of the mine; the coal-handling facilities at the surface of the
Air that has passed through the workings. Rib. The sides of a
pillar or roadway.
A stall, breast, or working place, where coal is mined.
Room and Pillar
A system of working by which solid blocks of coal are left on
either side of the entries and the rooms where the coal is
extracted to act as supports. When the rooms are worked out, the
pillars are mined. Sometimes called Pillar and Stall.
Safety lamp or Davey lamp
A lamp in which the flame is protected by fine wire mesh so
that a mixture of firedamp can he detected by its burning inside
the lamp; generally used to detect the presence of dangerous gas
in the mine by the miner observing the color and character of
the flame. The wire gauze prevents the heat from the flame from
passing to the outside air, thus preventing ignition of
The tine coal that passes through the screens when it. is
being sorted into various sizes.
Device or system of separating coal into different sizes, or
grades, for marketing.
The deposit of coal in the strata.
Groundwater, or runoff, entering the mine workings and
accumulating in the lower levels.
A vertical or nearly vertical hole in which the men and
material are hoisted and through which air is drawn into the
Shift-boss or Mine captain
Miner in charge of a particular shift, for example, the
afternoon shift; under the pit-boss in the hierarchy of mine
Blasting in a mine.
A man appointed by the manager to fire the shots in a section
of the mine.
Fine coal; the fine coal resulting from handling and
degradation of soft coal.
A roadway driven to the dip of the seam as opposed to an
A short wooden prop set at an angle to support the coal
during the operation of holing; a short piece of hardwood
pointed at the ends to act as a brake when placed in the spokes
of a car.
A working compartment in a coal mine usually used in seams
six feet (1.8 m) or more in thickness, sometimes called a room.
(Stalls were about 14 feet (4.2 m) wide.)
Pieces of wood, usually six feet lengths of2x6-in (1.8-m by
5xl5-cm) timber, used as cross-pieces in timbering over the
props on a long wall face; also used between the stringers and
entries or levels; also called lagging.
The direction or trend that a structural surface, e.g.,
bedding plane or fault plane, takes as it intersects the
The debris of mining thrown into the waste area behind the
face to help support the roof.
A very steep fault associated with a low angle overthrust
fault. It strikes perpendicular to the strike of the overthrust.
The vertical distance between two ends of a seam displaced by
faulting. Referred to as Downthrow, Upthrow.
One whose job is exclusively setting timbers, usually of a
repair nature in haulage roads and airways.
The dump trestle and tracks at the mouth of a shaft or slope,
where the output of a mine is dumped. screened and loaded; also
applied to the whole structure of the head frame containing the
A number of coupled coal cars taken at one time.
Trip Rider or Rope Rider
A worker who rides on a trip to attend to rope attachments
The shaft through which the return air ascends.
Washer or Washery
Plant where the coal is washed and graded; heavy waste
material is separated while light waste is floated off.
Air in a mine containing carbon monoxide, a product of
incomplete combustion, extremely poisonous.
General term used to describe the areas where coal is being